Conditions of Sale


  1. Auction Basics. This is a public auction sale (“Auction Sale”) conducted by bonded auctioneers, Stack’s Bowers Galleries or Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio (hereinafter referred to as “Auctioneer” and at times as “Stack’s Bowers”). Bidding in this Auction Sale constitutes acceptance by you (“Bidder”) of all the Terms of Sale stated herein. Bidders may include consignors who may bid and purchase lots in the Auction Sale consigned by the consignor or by other consignors pursuant to their consignment agreement with Stack’s Bowers (“Consignor” or “Consignors”). A Consignor that bids on their own lots in the Auction Sale may pay a different fee than the Buyer’s Premium charged to all other Buyers. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to include in any auction sale its own material as well as material from affiliated or related companies, principals, officers or employees. Stack’s Bowers may have direct or indirect interests in any of the lots in the auction and may collect commissions. THE TWO PRECEDING SENTENCES SHALL BE DEEMED A PART OF THE DESCRIPTION OF ALL LOTS CONTAINED IN THE CATALOG. Where the Consignor has repurchased a lot and the lot is either returned to the Consignor or otherwise dealt with or disposed of in accordance with the Consignor’s direction, or pursuant to contractual agreement, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to so note in the prices realized or to omit a price from the prices realized. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may bid for their own account at any auction. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may have information about any lot that is not known publicly, and Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates reserves the right to use such information, in a manner determined solely by them and for their benefit, without disclosing such information in the catalog, catalog description or at the auction. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates are not required to pay a Buyer’s Premium, or other charges that other Bidders may be required to pay and may have access to information concerning the lots that is not otherwise available to the public. Any claimed conflict of interest or claimed competitive advantage resulting therefrom is expressly waived by all participants in the Auction Sale. Lots may carry a reserve (“Reserve”). A Reserve is a price or bid below which the Auctioneer will not sell an item or will repurchase on behalf of the Consignor or for Stack’s Bowers. Reserves may be confidential and not disclosed. The Buyer is the Bidder who makes the highest bid accepted by the Auctioneer, and includes the principal of any Bidder acting as an agent.

  2. Descriptions and Grading. Bidder acknowledges that grading of most coins and currency in this Auction has been determined by independent grading services, and those that are not may be graded by Stack’s Bowers. Grading of rare coins and currency is subjective and, even though grading has a material effect on the value of the coins and currency, grading may differ among independent grading services and among numismatists. Stack’s Bowers is not responsible for the grades assigned by independent grading services, and makes no warranty or representation regarding such grades. Bidder further acknowledges and agrees that grades assigned by Stack’s Bowers and lot descriptions are based solely upon an examination of the coins and currency and are intended to identify coins and currency and note any perceived characteristics. However, coin grading and descriptions are subjective. Stack’s Bowers does not warrant the accuracy of such grading or descriptions, nor do they in any way form the basis for any bid. All photographs in this catalog are of the actual items being sold but may not be the actual size or to scale.

  3. The Bidding Process. The Auctioneer shall have the right to open or accept the bidding on any lot by placing a bid on behalf of the Consignor or his or her agent; a Bidder by mail, telephone, Internet or telefax; or any other participant in the Auction Sale. Bids must be for an entire lot and each lot constitutes a separate sale. All bids must be on increment as established by the Auctioneer, or half increment (a cut bid). Non-conforming bids will be rounded down to the nearest full increment and this rounded bid will be the bidder’s high bid. No lot will be broken up unless otherwise permitted by the Auctioneer. Lots will be sold in their numbered sequence unless Auctioneer directs otherwise. All material shall be sold in separate lots to the highest Bidder as determined by the Auctioneer. Auctioneer shall have the right in its sole and absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, establish bid increments, challenge any bid or bidding increment, to reduce any mail bid received, adjudicate all bidding disputes, to exclude any bidder and to determine the prevailing bid. The Auctioneer shall have the right, but not the obligation, to rescind the acceptance of any bid and place the lot(s) for Auction Sale again. Auctioneer’s decision on all bidding disputes shall be binding and final. For the mail and Internet Bidder’s protection, no “unlimited” or “buy” bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for a lot, preference is given to the first bid received as determined by the Auctioneer. A mail bid will take precedence over an identical floor bid; a Floor Bidder, Telephone Bidder and Live Internet Bidder must bid higher than the highest mail bid to be awarded any lot. Cut bids are only accepted on bids greater than $500 and each bidder may only execute one cut bid per lot. Bids will not be accepted from persons under eighteen (18) years of age without a parent’s written consent which acknowledges the Terms of Sale herein and agrees to be bound thereby on behalf of the underage Bidder. The auction sale is complete when the Auctioneer so announces by the fall of the hammer or in any other customary manner.

    THIS IS NOT AN APPROVAL SALE. Bidders who physically attend the Auction sale, either personally or through an agent (“Floor Bidders”) should carefully examine all lots which they are interested in purchasing. Bidders who bid by telephone, either personally or through an agent, or through our live auction software receive a similar benefit as Floor Bidders in being able to actively participate in the live Auction Sale (“Telephone Bidders” and “Live Internet Bidders”). Except as otherwise expressly provided in these Terms of Sale, NO PURCHASED ITEMS MAY BE RETURNED FOR ANY REASON. All prospective Bidders who examine the lot(s) prior to the Auction Sale personally assume all responsibility for any damage that Bidder causes to the lot(s). Stack’s Bowers shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by such Bidder.

    Certain auctions or auction sessions, will be conducted exclusively over the Internet, and bids will be accepted only from pre-registered Bidders.

    STACK’S BOWERS IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ERRORS IN BIDDING. All Bidders should make certain to bid on the correct lot and that the bid is the bid intended. Once the hammer has fallen and the Auctioneer has announced the Buyer, the Buyer is unconditionally bound to pay for the lot, even if the Buyer made a mistake. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to withdraw any lot at any time, even after the hammer has fallen, until the Buyer has taken physical possession of the lot. No participant in the Auction Sale shall have a right to claim any damages, including consequential damages if a lot is withdrawn, even if the withdrawal occurs after the Auction Sale.

  4. Bidder Registration Required. All persons seeking to bid must complete and sign a registration card either at the auction or online, or otherwise qualify to bid, as determined in the sole discretion of the Auctioneer. By submitting a bid, the Bidder acknowledges that Bidder has read the Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale, the descriptions for the lot(s) on which they have bid, and that they agree to be bound by these Terms of Sale. This agreement shall be deemed to have been made and entered in California. The Bidder acknowledges that the invoice describing a lot by number incorporates the catalog and Terms of Sale. Person appearing on the OFAC list are not eligible to bid.

  5. Buyer’s Premiums. A premium of twenty percent (20%) based upon the total amount of the hammer (minimum of $20), will be added to all purchases of individual lots, regardless of affiliation with any group or organization (the “Buyer’s Premium”). A reacquisition charge may apply to Consignors pursuant to a separate agreement, which may be higher or lower than the Buyer’s Premium.

  6. Payment. Payment is due immediately upon the fall of the auctioneer’s hammer. Payment is delinquent and in default if not received in full, in good funds, within fourteen (14) calendar days of the Auction Sale (the “Default Date”), without exception, time being of the essence. Unless otherwise agreed in writing prior to the Auction Sale, all auction sales are payable strictly in U.S. Dollars, Hong Kong Dollars or Chinese Renminbi. All invoices will be made in United States Dollars. If paying in Hong Kong Dollars or Chinese Renminbi, Buyer’s invoices will be credited with the amount of U.S. Dollars received from Auctioneer’s bank. Payments may be made by credit card, Paypal, Union Pay, check, wire transfer, money order and cashier’s check. Cash transactions will be accepted in the sole discretion of Stack’s Bowers, and if accepted, for any cash transaction or series of transactions exceeding $10,000, a Treasury Form 8300 will be filed. Contact Stack’s Bowers for wiring instructions before sending a wire. Bank wires sent from a foreign bank are subject to an international bank wire fee of $35. We accept payment by Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover or Paypal for invoices up to $2,500, with a maximum of $10,000 in any 30 day period. All payments are subject to a clearing period. Checks drawn on U.S. banks will be subject to up to a 10 business day hold, and checks drawn on foreign banks will be subject to a 30 day hold. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right not to release lots for which good funds have not yet been received. On any past due accounts, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, without notice, to extend credit and impose carrying charges (as described below). Buyers agree to pay reasonable attorney’s fees and cost incurred to collect past due accounts. Any invoice not paid by the Default Date will bear a five percent (5%) late fee on the invoice amount. Buyers personally and unconditionally guarantee payment in full of all amounts owed to Stack’s Bowers. Any person submitting bids on behalf of a corporation or other entity, by making such bid, agrees to be personally jointly and severally liable for the payment of the purchase price and any related charges and the performance of all Buyer obligations under these Terms of Sale and Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to require a written guarantee of such payments and obligations. Bidders who have not established credit with Stack’s Bowers must furnish satisfactory information and credit references and/or deposit at least twenty-five percent (25%) of their total bids for that Auction Sale session(s) or such other amount as Stack’s Bowers may, in its sole and absolute discretion require before any bids from such Bidder will be accepted. Deposits submitted will be applied to purchases. Any remaining deposits will be promptly refunded, upon clearance of funds.

  7. Sales Tax. Buyers will be charged all applicable sales tax unless a valid Resale Certificate has been provided to the Auctioneer prior to the auction. Should state sales tax become applicable in the delivery state prior to delivery of the property on the invoice, the Buyer agrees to pay all applicable state sales tax as required by the delivery state as of the shipping date. In the event any applicable sales tax is not paid by Buyer that should have been paid, even if not such tax was not charged or collected by Stack’s Bowers by mistake, error, negligence or gross negligence, Buyer nonetheless acknowledges responsibility to pay such sales tax and remains fully liable for and agrees to promptly pay such taxes on demand, together with any interest or penalty that may be assessed by the taxing authority and agrees to indemnify and hold Auctioneer harmless from any applicable sales tax, interest or penalties due. Lots from different Auctions may not be aggregated for sales tax purposes.

  8. Financial Responsibility. n the event any applicable conditions of these Terms of Sale herein are not complied with by a Buyer or if the Buyer fails to make payment in full by the Default Date, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, in its sole discretion, in addition to all other remedies which it may have at law or in equity to rescind the sale of that lot or any other lot or lots sold to the defaulting Buyer, retaining all payments made by Buyer as liquidated damages, it being recognized that actual damages may be speculative or difficult to compute, and resell a portion or all of the lots held by Stack’s Bowers, in a commercially reasonable manner, which may include a public or private sale, in a quantity sufficient in the opinion of Stack’s Bowers to satisfy the indebtedness, plus all accrued charges, and Stack’s Bowers may charge a seller’s commission that is commercially reasonable. More than one such sale may take place at the option of Stack’s Bowers. If Stack’s Bowers resells the lots, Buyer agrees to pay for the reasonable cost of such sale, together with any incidental costs of sale, including reasonable attorney’s fees and costs, cataloging and any other reasonable charges. Notice of the sale shall be by U.S.P.S. Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested to the address utilized on the Bid Sheet, Auction Consignment and Security Agreement or other last known address by Stack’s Bowers. The proceeds shall be applied first to the satisfaction of any damages occasioned by Buyer’s breach, then to any other indebtedness owed to Stack’s Bowers, including without limitation, commissions, handling charges, carrying charges, the expenses of both sales, seller’s fees, reasonable attorneys’ fees, costs, collection agency fees and costs and any other costs or expenses incurred. Buyer shall also be liable to Stack’s Bowers for any deficiency if the proceeds of such sale or sales are insufficient to cover such amounts.

    Buyer grants to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due to Stack’s Bowers, and to make such offset from any past, current, or future consignment, or purchases that are in the possession or control of Stack’s Bowers; or from any sums due to Buyer by Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees. In addition, defaulting Buyers will be deemed to have granted to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, a security interest in: (x) the purchased lots and their proceeds, and (y) such sums or other items and their proceeds, in the possession of Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates or assignees, to secure all indebtedness due to Stack’s Bowers and its affiliated companies, plus all accrued expenses, carrying charges, seller’s fees, attorney fees, and costs, until the indebtedness is paid in full. Buyer grants Stack’s Bowers the right to file a UCC-1 financing statement for such items, and to assign such interest to any affiliated or related company or any third party deemed appropriate by Stack’s Bowers. If the auction invoice is not paid for in full by the Default Date, a carrying charge of one-and-one-half percent (1-1/2%) per month may be imposed on the unpaid amount until it is paid in full. In the event this interest rate exceeds the interest permitted by law, the same shall be adjusted to the maximum rate permitted by law, and any amount paid in excess thereof shall be allocated to principal. Buyer agrees to pay all reasonable attorney’s fees, court costs and other collection costs incurred by Stack’s Bowers or any affiliated or related company to collect past due invoices or to interpret or enforce the terms hereof or in any action or proceeding arising out of or related to the Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to assign its interest to any third party. To the extent that the Buyer for any lot consists of more than one person or entity, each such person or entity is jointly and severally liable for all obligations of the Buyer, regardless of the title or capacity of such person or entity. Stack’s Bowers shall have all the rights of a secured creditor under Article 9 of the California Commercial Code and all rights of the consignor to collect amounts due from the Buyer, whether at law or equity.

  9. Shipping. It is the Buyer’s responsibility to contact Stack’s Bowers after the sale to make shipping and packaging arrangements. Due to the fragile nature of some lots, Stack’s Bowers may elect not to assume responsibility for shipping or packing, or may charge additional shipping and handling. Lots indicated as being “framed” or that are specifically identified in the catalog are shipped at Buyer’s risk. All taxes, postage, shipping, if applicable, handling, insurance costs, the Buyer’s Premium, and any other fees required by law to be charged or collected will be added to the invoice for any lots invoiced to Buyer. All lots shipped to foreign countries will be billed an additional one-half percent (1/2%) for insurance (minimum of $10). For any lots delivered outside the United States, the declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price plus its buyer’s premium. Auctioneer shall not be liable for any loss caused or resulting from seizure or destruction under quarantine or customs regulation or confiscation by order of any government or public authority. Buyer shall be responsible for paying all applicable taxes, duties and customs charges for all lots delivered outside the United States. All lots will be shipped FOB Destination, freight prepaid and charged back. Title and risk of loss pass to the Buyer at the destination upon tender of delivery. Acceptance of delivery constitutes acceptance of the purchased lots. Inspection of the purchased lots is not required for acceptance. Any and all claims based upon Buyer’s failure to receive a purchased lot, Buyer’s receipt of a lot in damaged condition, or otherwise related to delivery, must be received in writing by Stack’s Bowers no later than the earlier of thirty (30) days after payment, or the date of the Auction Sale (the “Outside Claim Date”). As Buyers may not receive notification of shipment, it is Buyer’s responsibility to keep track of the Outside Claim Date and make timely notification of any such claim. The failure to make a timely claim, time being of the essence, shall constitute a waiver of any such claim. Orders paid by credit card will only be shipped to the verified address on file with the credit card merchant.



    2. For non-certified coins and currency that have not been examined by the Buyer prior to the Auction Sale: if it is determined in a review by Stack’s Bowers that there is a material error in the catalog description of a non-certified coin or currency or the coin or currency is not authentic, such lot may be returned, provided written notice is received by Stack’s Bowers no later than seventy-two (72) hours of delivery of the lots in question, and such lots are returned and received by Stack’s Bowers, in their original, sealed containers, no later than fourteen (14) calendar days after delivery, in the same condition the lot(s) were delivered to the Buyer, time being of the essence.

    3. If an item or items are returned pursuant to the terms herein, they must be housed in their original, sealed and unopened container.

    4. Late remittance or removal of any item from its original container, or altering a coin constitutes just cause for revocation of all return privileges.

    5. Grading or condition of rare coins and currency may have a material effect on the value of the item(s) purchased, and the opinion of others (including independent grading services) may differ with the independent grading services opinion or interpretation of Stack’s Bowers. Stack’s Bowers shall not be bound by any prior, or subsequent opinion, determination or certification by any independent grading service.

    6. Questions regarding the minting of a coin as a “proof” or as a “business strike” relate to the method of manufacture and not to authenticity.

    7. All oral and written statements made by Stack’s Bowers and its employees or agents (including affiliated and related companies) are statements of opinion only, and are not warranties or representations of any kind, unless stated as a specific written warranty, and no employee or agent of Stack’s Bowers has authority to vary or alter these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to vary or alter the Terms of Sale, either generally or with respect to specific persons or circumstances, in its sole discretion. Any variation or alteration shall be effective only if in writing and signed by an officer of Stack’s Bowers authorized to do so.

    8. Stack’s Bowers is acting as an auctioneer. Title to the lots purchased passes directly from the Consignor to the Buyer. Accordingly, Stack’s Bowers is not making, and disclaims, any warranty of title.

    9. Bidders shall have no recourse against the Consignor for any reason whatsoever.

    10. Bidder acknowledges that the numismatic market is speculative, unregulated and volatile, and that coin prices may rise or fall over time. Stack’s Bowers does not guarantee or represent that any customer buying for investment purposes will be able to sell for a profit in the future.

    11. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that neither Stack’s Bowers, nor its employees, affiliates, agents, third-party providers or consignors warrant that auctions will be unimpaired, uninterrupted or error free and accordingly shall not be liable for such events.

  11. Waiver and Release. Bidder, for himself, his heirs, agents, successors and assignees, generally and specifically waives and releases, and forever discharges Stack’s Bowers, and its respective affiliates, parents, officers, directors, shareholders, agents, subsidiaries, employees, managers and members and each of them, and their respective successors and assignees from any and all claims, rights, demands and causes of actions and suits, of whatever kind or nature, including but not limited to claims based upon Auctioneer’s negligence, whether in law or equity, tort or otherwise, whether known or unknown, suspected or unsuspected (a “Claim”), which Bidder may assert with respect to and/or arising out of, or in connection with any challenge to the title to or authenticity of any goods purchased, the sale itself, any lot bid upon or consigned, and/or the auction, except where such Claim is otherwise expressly authorized in these Terms of Sale. It is the intention of Bidder that this waiver and release shall be effective as a bar to each and every Claim that may arise hereunder or be related to the Auction Sale, and Bidder hereby knowingly and voluntarily waives any and all rights and benefits otherwise conferred upon him by the provisions of Section 1542 of the California Civil Code, which reads in full as follows:


  12. Disputes. If a dispute arises concerning ownership of a lot or concerning proceeds of any sale, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to commence a statutory inter-pleader proceeding at the expense of the Consignor and Buyer and any other applicable party, and in such event shall be entitled to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to cancel or postpone the Auction Sale or any session thereof for any reason whatsoever. No Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including for incidental or consequential damages. Neither Stack’s Bowers nor any affiliated or related company shall be responsible for incidental or consequential damages arising out of any failure of the Terms of Sale, the auction or the conduct thereof and in no event shall such liability exceed the purchase price, premium, or fees paid. Rights granted to Bidders under the within Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale are personal and apply only to the Bidder who initially purchases the lot(s) from Stack’s Bowers. The rights may not be assigned or transferred to any other person or entity, whether by sale of the lot(s), operation of law or otherwise. Any attempt to assign or transfer any such rights shall be absolutely void and unenforceable. No third party may rely on any benefit or right conferred by these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale.

    Any dispute arising out of or related to these Terms of Sale, the Auction Sale or any lot, with the sole exception of actions by Stack’s Bowers to collect amounts owed to it and other damages, shall be submitted to binding arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, with any arbitration hearing to occur in Orange County, California. Absent an agreement of the parties, the arbitrator shall limit discovery to that which is necessary to enable the hearing to proceed efficiently. The arbitrator shall not have the power to award punitive or consequential damages, nor alter, amend modify any of the terms of this Agreement. The award by the arbitrator, if any, may be entered in any court having jurisdiction thereof. Each party shall pay one-half the costs of the arbitration. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that the competent courts of the State of California shall have exclusive in personam jurisdiction, subject to the requirement to arbitrate, over any dispute(s) arising hereunder, regardless of any party’s current or future residence or domicile. Bidder further agrees that venue of the arbitration proceeding shall be in Orange County, California; and any court proceeding shall be in the Orange County Superior Court, in the State of California, and in each case waive any claim of Forum Non Conveniens. Bidder agrees that any arbitration or legal action with respect to this Auction Sale is barred unless commenced within one (1) year of the date of this Auction Sale. AUCTION PARTICIPANTS EXPRESSLY WAIVE ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

  13. General Terms. These Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale and the auction shall be construed and enforced in accordance with, and governed by, the laws of the State of California, regardless of the location of the Auction Sale. These Terms of Sale and the information on the Stack’s Bowers’ website constitute the entire agreement between the parties hereto on the subject matter hereof and supersede all other agreements, understandings, warranties and representations concerning the subject matter hereof. If any section of these Terms of Auction Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Stack’s Bowers may at its sole and absolute discretion, make loans or advances to Consignors and/or Bidders.

  14. Chinese Translation. The Chinese translations are provided as a matter of convenience. In the event of a conflict, all English Terms and Conditions and lot descriptions take precedence and are binding.

Bidding in this auction sale constitutes unconditional acceptance by the Bidder of the foregoing terms of sale.

Please note: Transparent holders in which the auction lots are stored are to facilitate viewing and inspection of the lots and ARE NOT for long-term storage.

PCGS and NGC numbers provided are for bidder convenience only, we do not guarantee their accuracy. An incorrect PCGS or NGC number is not grounds to return a lot.

For PRICES REALIZED after the sale, call 1-800-458-4646. Preliminary prices realized will also be posted on the Internet soon after the session closes.